Sep 6, 2010

15

POVERTY IN CAMBODIA

  • Sep 6, 2010
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  • "Being poor is not just about having enough food to eat, …Rather being poor is also about being ignorant, to have people look down on you, and to not be able to support your own family. …”,

                Cambodia is known as one of the world poorest countries. According to the UNDP, Human Development Index Report in 2009; Cambodia ranks 137th out of 182 countries over the world. Annual per capita income is 256$ in 1999. It is estimated to be around 300$ today. An approximately 36% of the population lives below the basic needs poverty line. In addition, poverty rate in the rural areas is 40%, four times as high as Phnom Penh, which is only 10%.
    Among other factors prolonged civil conflict during three past decades, internal displacement and discriminatory development processes are the main causes of poverty in Cambodia. It is now widely recognized that poverty is a multidimensional problem and should be viewed in a broader context than merely in terms of low levels of consumption and income. Lack of food, uncertainties about access to natural resources, powerlessness and hopelessness, social exclusion, lack of education, etc. are all dimensions of poverty. Within Cambodia these were encapsulated in the Cambodia Participatory Poverty Assessment published by the Asian Development Bank in 2001

                Poverty in Cambodia is widespread with some 36 percent of the Cambodian population living below the poverty line of US$0.46-0.63 at the current exchange rate. Generally, people move in and out of poverty, which makes definition of poverty lines and better knowledge about cyclical, seasonal and unexpected shocks important. Current level of poverty largely results from high population growth, inadequate opportunities, low capabilities, insecurity, exclusion, and vulnerability. Therefore, before we technically measure poverty we should first and foremost understand the multidimensional nature of poverty. For the moment we focus in turn on lack of opportunities, lack of capabilities, social exclusion, and vulnerability in the sections that follow.


     
    Poverty was defined as a deprivation of common necessary that determine the quality of life or standard of living of people, including food, cloth, shelter and safe drinking water, and may also include the deprivation of opportunities to learn, to obtain better employment and less access to the health. There are two type of poverty “Absolutely poverty” and “Relative poverty”.

    Absolutely poverty is defined as a people that living below the poverty line “Not fit to the basic need/standard of living”. At current prices, the total poverty line in 2004 was estimated at 2351 Riel (US$ 0.59) in Phnom Penh, 1952 Riel (US$ 0.49) in other urban areas and 1753 Riel (US$ 0.44) in rural areas.

    Relative poverty are defined as a poor people live in the country that compare to the poverty in the country, normally, they can earn less than 2 dollar per day, but not living in absolutely poverty.

    Poverty may affect individuals or groups of people living in the society in Cambodia, and is not confined to the third nation country like our country. The main cause of poverty in Cambodia was characterized by low income, low consumption, few assets, poor nutritional status, starvation, low educational attainment, illiteracy and less capacity, less access to public services including school and health services, less access to economic opportunities, high population grow, physical weakness of household, lack of contacts in society, little participation in decision making or in society, vulnerability and instability of political processes.
    Cause of poverty diagram:

       
    Few Assets: most of poor people are living in rural areas and most of them depend on agriculture for their livelihood, but most of them have few assets and landless. Landlessness is one of the main cause of poverty in Cambodia, because all the poor are depend on agriculture, so they could not generate money or get income if the have no land to do farming.

    Low Income: Because of the poor have no ability to access education and health care system, so they are lack of opportunity to get employment in the city. They can only work in the primary sector; they have no ability to work in the secondary and tertiary sector. So they can only apply for worker or garment worker that provide less salary. On the other hand, in rural areas their in no sustain for the poor, if they depend on only natural resources and the most important, they have dependency people in their family (old men or women and children). So, they need to migrate to other place to find a job to support their livelihood. 

    Low Education attainment: Education in Cambodia is one of the worst in the world because there is not enough teacher, school, in rural areas or some urban; the school is far away from their house, and other wise some family is poor, they are inability to afford school fee for their children, so they let their children go to work out side for support their living. It is the main cause that mad children cannot go to school, and poverty remains with the children of the poor to take time off from work for their education. According to Cambodian Communities out of Crisis, the adult literacy rate for Cambodian men is 85.1% and women is only 70.9% 

    Educational levels completed by literate persons aged 25 years and over are         “No educational level: 3.2%, Primary not completed: 47.2%, Primary: 26.8%,
    Lower Secondary: 18.8%, Secondary/Diploma: 2.2%,
    Beyond Secondary: 1.8%”

    Illiteracy and Lack of Capacity: as mentioned above in Educational level, in rural areas, there is low rate of enrollment, because of their parent are inability to afford school fee for their children. A lot of children drop out from school for work in order to get more income for support their family or their livelihood. It’s the main cause that leads the Cambodian people into a deeply poverty.  Lack of capabilities always makes it impossible for the poor people to move out of poverty.

     Starvation: It is always happened to the people lived in rural areas. Because of low education and inabilities to work for generate money for support their life. There are about 35% living below poverty line, they have no ability to achieve the basic need. They can earn only less than 1$ per day and some families get nothing per day. So their life depend on the natural resources “fishery, agriculture, forestry, landmine, etc.”, if the natural resources faced with the problem, so the poor will face with starvation too. 

    Poor nutrition: food is really important for the human, but in the other urban or rural the people are getting less food consumption. Low/poor nutrition is really affected to the children; the brain will not develop and children may get sick because of inability of their parent that could not feed them enough food. Children are the most important resources for the country in the future, but unfortunately, they are always live without enough food. Because they depending on natural resources, if the natural resources not provide them good, so they will get less food too.

    Low consumption: In rural areas, the average of consumption for the poor is less than $1.00 per day. It’s really far different from the average of people living in Phnom Penh. It’s really effect to their families, because some families have a lot of independency people (many children and old men or women).

    Inability to access health care: The poor always tend to have worse health. The Cambodian poor are holding a heavy burden of bad health and diseases. The poor are likely to live within unhygienic; they are less understanding about good health and hygiene, and less likely to have the resources to ensure healthy life-styles, e.g. water, sanitation, foods, prophylaxis, etc. The primary causes of death for the general population are malaria, acute respiratory infection, tuberculosis, diarrhea and dengue fever. HIV/AIDS is also a main factor that contributes to low life expectancy among Cambodian citizens. Life expectancy at birth is estimated at only 57 years, about 13 years less than the life expectancy average in the region


    No saving and investment in economic opportunity: 35% of Cambodian people are poor; it is hard for them to generate profit and savings for investment. Usually, the investment rate of low income countries is lower than that of any other group of countries. This low rate of investment, in turn, contributes to the low rate of economic growth. In other words, if there is no saving, there is no investment. Investment will help many people have opportunity to work, but if no or les investment, it will leads to less employment opportunities in the society.
    Physical weakness of household: according to the statistic of UNDP, there are children 51 dependency ratio in 2010 and 5.6 of old age dependency ratio in 2007. In rural area there are many families have dependency people in the families. They need to find money for supporting there dependency people in the families.     

    nstability of political and Corruption: it is the main cause that leads the society to the worse. It’s the abuse of public position for personal gain or for the benefit of an individual or group to whom one owes allegiance. Corruption occurs when a public official accepts, solicits, or extorts a payment, or when private agents offer a payment to circumvent the law for competitive or personal interest. Corruption is a two-way process, involving members of both the public and private sector, or a “giver” and a “taker” who are engaged in illegal, illegitimate and unethical action. There are many type of corruption form, it take a variety of forms such bribery, nepotism, patronage, theft of state assets, evasion of taxes, diversion of revenue and electoral fraud. The theft of state assets by officials in charged of the stewardship, and manipulation or violation of electoral laws regarding campaign finance and voting is also considered as corruption

    High Population Growth: It refers to the number of population that increases by time to time. The higher population growths contribute to poverty. And the end of cause is population growth that populations of poorest countries grow much faster than those of the developed. This is because they are lack of understanding of the important of birth control or they are unwilling to practice birth control. Too much population growth creates dependency in their families.  
    Lack of contacts: The poor people living in poverty line are less contacts or miss a lot of information in the society. Because most of them are uneducated and some busy with their farm, they don't understand about the advantage of information. So the flow of information in the society is missed. 

    15 Responses to “POVERTY IN CAMBODIA”

    Income Protection said...
    September 27, 2013

    There is no instant way to address poverty issues but if there is a political will among the leaders, poverty will be addressed one step at a time.


    Rima Mar said...
    June 25, 2014

    Attendees will be Attract by Ford

    Leading to cars sale in Phnom Penh Mg Cambodia reported, the new racecar of Ford will present in the Goodwood Festival of Speed.
    This new model will be drive by Hill. The company expected that this one will become the first available for the world in this week.
    Everyone, who joins this event, will be attracted by Ford. This racecar, ST powers by 182 hp and the last with turbocharge 2.0-litre mill that make252 ponies and 270lb-ft of twist, but we cannot know about the engine yet, if it will be upgraded or change to 2015 model.


    chamroeun lampard said...
    July 09, 2014 This comment has been removed by the author.

    chamroeun lampard said...
    July 09, 2014

    The Entertainment Restaurant

    Trustworthy furniture shop in Cambodia construction materials cited, the restaurant has feature shown about entertainment with music was designed to serve people’s life.
    By this side this restaurant was designed a bar look recalling a 60s audition hall. Anyway the main point is focused on brass cymbals lamps hanging like coins in the central dining area.
    One more thing, other design elements follow the same midcentury modern line, there is the onyx bar, high quality and beauty sofa and walnut wainscot counterpoint the bare concrete, and exposed piping. As a result, it will provide you the happy life within your busy life.


    Ga lucita said...
    July 15, 2014

    An upscale bathroom from Jalna Eve Warren

    According to reliable furniture shop in Phnom Penh
    construction materials

    information, a spectacular innovation of a modern-day bathroom has been introduced by designer Jalna Eve Warren.
    The already existing bathroom has been remodel by the designer according to the request of the owner for a more contemporary look and focus on the outside view.

    "One approach to this was to separate off the shower area from the main part of the bathroom – so the first thing your eye is drawn to is the mountain and lake setting. The double shower is accessed from the left of the privacy wall." said Warren.
    "Another request of the owners was to have the bathtub in the prime position for enjoying the view, and to an extent this led the design," says Warren. "As well as placing the tub up by the window, I dropped the ceiling height in this area to create a snug, enclosed feel."

    "All the walls and floors and even the vanity are finished in the same pale, veined stone. The generous use of this material gives the bathroom a high-end feel, and suits the contemporary lines of the design."

    "The dazzling chandelier fittings echo the sparkling aesthetic of the stone walls and mirrors, and bring an even greater sense of luxury to the bathroom." Warren concluded her description.


    Rima Mar said...
    August 12, 2014

    The Contemporary and Classic House

    This house’s style is contemporary and classic, according to furniture shop in Cambodia
    construction materials reported.
    In addition this house is designed as a mix and charming with sky blue wallpaper and white interior furniture.
    One more thing the mind-blowing atmosphere is being supplemented with a large kitchen, dining room area, a great living room with wicked furniture and interesting detail, a vast chimney breast, a gorgeous bedroom and open plan bathroom with a free standing bath and a glass shower area.
    Anyway it will make you crave for one and you will enjoy and surprise with its functional.


    bon tong said...
    September 16, 2014

    4 million iPhone 6 and 6 Plus sold in first day


    Well-known digital marketing agency, According to Apple, the company sold a record 4 million iPhone 6 and iPhone 6 Plus smartphones on Friday, the first day that the new iGadgets were available for pre-order.
    So high was the demand for the new iPhones that the iPhone 6 Plus sold out within hours. Whereas a large number of people who pre-ordered the iPhone 6 will get them this Friday, many others won't get their iPhones delivered until next month. Apple said: "Demand for the new iPhones exceeds the initial pre-order supply."
    Thanks to this, Apple is going to produce additional phones and make it available to walk-in customers on Friday Sept. 19, beginning at 8:00 a.m. local time at Apple stores.


    Chhunmeng KabKab said...
    October 17, 2014

    The Modern Curved Kitchen


    This kitchen was designed as a curved and modern for the house, trustworthy to furniture shop in Cambodia
    construction materials
    provided.
    In addition, this kitchen set a fresh mood for the cooking space and thanks to their ergonomic design and offering the great functionality.
    Moreover, this kitchen model is available within a wide range of colors from bright white and red to more natural magnolia and iron.
    Furthermore, this new kitchen is outfitted with a folded transparent glass table on external side, so it is not effected the cooking.


    Thon Mey said...
    November 19, 2014

    Clear view by Stuart Silk


    Delivered by trustworthy construction in Cambodia construction materials, when you have the best backdrop to exploit, it is a waste to have a design hinder it. Hence, the call for an open plan which allow the flow to continue and take you to the adjacent backdrop as the above kitchen illustrates.
    "The same principles were to be applied to the kitchen upgrade. The original design had limited connection to the panoramic lake views and internal connections were also poor – a single door led from the dining room through to the kitchen," said designer Stuart Silk. "In response, we reconfigured and reoriented the kitchen space, opening it to the dining room with a double-width void at one end and French doors to a garden courtyard at the other.
    "We also built a new family room beyond the existing floor plate on the far side of the home with a generous connection to the dining area, which in turn opens to the new kitchen. Now you look through the run of rooms at a glance, with views framed at either end."
    "This kitchen reflects the collaboration between owner, interior designer and myself – the end result combines an airy through-space with a family and entertainer's kitchen."


    bon tong said...
    December 08, 2014

    Old-world and solid by Alan Zielinski


    According to reliable furniture shop in Phnom Penh construction materials information, this traditional, monochromatic-style kitchen was designed by Alan Zielinski.
    "I was aiming for a weathered, masculine and anchored look, so I selected traditional cherry wood cabinetry from Wood Mode," he said. "I wanted to emulate the characteristics of well-worn cherry, with plenty of warmth and depth, so I chose a stain that has a transparent quality, and allows the grain and natural weathering of the wood to show through. The cabinetry is enhanced with a black glaze finish that accentuates the ornate detailing."
    "The more you look at this kitchen, the more details you find," added Zielinski. "It's also a practical space that is suitable for caterers preparing food for parties, as well as for family cooks."


    Chhunmeng Lee Lee said...
    December 17, 2014

    The Impressive and Attractive House

    This house design is really impressive and attractive by Cullinan Studio, leading to furniture shop in Cambodia
    construction materials
    stated.
    As the architects said, “We did not want to simply add on more living space but rather improve the upper and lower ground floors of the house in a way that worked with the existing building, both internally and externally.
    It was clear that the new part of the building would relate to the garden on a more domestic scale if its height were lower.
    A bold new plan was devised. Using the pure geometry of a ‘cube’, we created a new large central living space, giving the house a new heart.
    Smaller rooms opening off this space match the rhythms of family life: there’s a warm and welcoming place to come together in but also spaces to quietly retreat to”.


    Chhunmeng Lee Lee said...
    December 26, 2014

    A barn house update by Stephan Green

    According to reliable furniture shop in Phnom Penh construction materials information, this barn house was renovated by architect Stephan Green who believed retaining the look of the originality was paramount.
    "The southern and western sides of the building had been exposed to weathering, while the eastern and northern sides were relatively well preserved. Homeowners Annette and Michael Miller agreed that we keep the country-style look of the sound faces, but take the opportunity to modernize areas that needed refurbishment. As part of this process, we added more glazing, which was scarce – not surprising in a barn," said Green.
    "These large, arched openings look out over a cobbled courtyard area enclosed by a low shingle wall – which we re-created after looking at old photos," stated Green.
    "Inside, the remaining barn doors are mounted to create a frame around this window, providing a reference to the building's history," added Green.


    chamroeun messi said...
    January 05, 2015

    Streamlined sense – A loft-like penthouse remodel by Nick Winton

    Delivered by trustworthy construction in Cambodia
    construction materials, designed by architect Nick Winton, the above house in a loft-style design was renovated to exploit the outdoor view of skyline and the river in a clean-lined and sleek aesthetic.
    "The loft is effectively a penthouse on top of the building, with doors opening directly out onto the roof, giving the position an even greater impact. To ensure the indoor and outside areas work together, the roof garden landscaping and the interior architecture were developed in conjunction with each other," the architect said.
    "Everything about the space was classically loft-like. We kept all the original window openings and only altered a couple to create doorways onto the deck," Winton stated.
    "About quarter of the apartment is taken up by one large, square pod containing the master bedroom, as well as an adjoining living room, study, and bathroom," added the architect.


    vong dara said...
    January 14, 2015

    Modern Spectacular Two-Storey House


    Designed by Spanish studio RTA-office, House C is two houses sited in the Catalan capital, leading to furniture shop in Phnom Penh construction materials reported.

    Interestingly, the roofs encompass various slope and huge floor to ceiling windows guarantee the indoor/outdoor relation connection and every room could ease owner to expose to the natural environment. More surprisingly, the interiors featuring unusual-build walls and with everything painted in white.

    Moreover, RTA-office told that pool is perfectly integrated in the geometry of the building and contribute its brilliant look.


    vong dara said...
    January 21, 2015

    Free flow – Seamless and robust sliding door from Redstone Custom Door

    As successful furniture shop in Cambodia construction materials informed, a wood sliding door from Redstone Custom Door was specified for the featured home’s entrance to have a better and easier flow between the indoor and outdoor connection.
    "The 2¼-inch-thick door panels feature a stile-and-rail engineered construction, which comprises an LVL wood core to increase strength and resist warping. This ensures the doors will tolerate the climate extremes." Patrick Davis, vice president sales and marketing said.
    "The seamless flow between the two living areas is enhanced by the near-flush surface provided underfoot. Just three-sixteenths of an inch protrudes above floor level – the rest of the track is embedded within the floor."
    "This means it is easy to walk in and out of the room without having to step over anything," he added. "When fully opened, the sliding doors are concealed within the side walls, so there is also no visual clutter to break the clear opening."


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